# Declaring Tensors

pytaco.tensor objects, which represent mathematical tensors, form the core of the TACO Python library. You can can declare a new tensor by specifying the sizes of each dimension, the format that will be used to store the tensor, and the datatype of the tensor's nonzero elements:

# Import the TACO Python library
import pytaco as pt
from pytaco import dense, compressed

# Declare a new tensor of double-precision floats with dimensions
# 512 x 64 x 2048, stored as a dense-sparse-sparse tensor
A = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], pt.format([dense, compressed, compressed]), pt.float64)

The datatype can be omitted, in which case TACO will default to using pt.float32 to store the tensor's nonzero elements:

# Declare the same tensor as before
A = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], pt.format([dense, compressed, compressed]))

Instead of specifying a format that is tied to the number of dimensions that a tensor has, we can simply specify whether all dimensions are dense or sparse:

# Declare a tensor where all dimensions are dense
A = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], dense)

# Declare a tensor where all dimensions are sparse
B = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], compressed)

Scalars, which correspond to tensors that have zero dimension, can be declared and initialized with an arbitrary value as demonstrated below:

# Declare a scalar
aplha = pt.tensor(42.0)

# Defining Tensor Formats

Conceptually, you can think of a tensor as a tree where each level (excluding the root) corresponding to a dimension of the tensor. Each path from the root to a leaf node represents the coordinates of a tensor element and its corresponding value. Which dimension of the tensor each level of the tree corresponds to is determined by the order in which tensor dimensions are stored.

TACO uses a novel scheme that can describe different storage formats for a tensor by specifying the order in which tensor dimensions are stored and whether each dimension is sparse or dense. A sparse (compressed) dimension stores only the subset of the dimension that contains non-zero values, using index arrays that are found in the compressed sparse row (CSR) matrix format. A dense dimension, on the other hand, conceptually stores both zeros and non-zeros. This scheme is flexibile enough to express many commonly-used tensor storage formats:

import pytaco as pt
from pytaco import dense, compressed

dm   = pt.format([dense, dense])                        # (Row-major) dense matrix format
csr  = pt.format([dense, compressed])                   # Compressed sparse row matrix format
csc  = pt.format([dense, compressed], [1, 0])           # Compressed sparse column matrix format
dcsr = pt.format([compressed, compressed], [1, 0])      # Doubly compressed sparse column matrix format
csf  = pt.format([compressed, compressed, compressed])  # Compressed sparse fiber tensor format

As demonstrated above, you can define a new tensor storage format by creating a pytaco.format object. This requires specifying whether each tensor dimension is dense or sparse as well as (optionally) the order in which dimensions should be stored. TACO also predefines some common tensor formats (including pt.csr and pt.csc) that you can use out of the box.

# Initializing Tensors

Tensors can be made by using python indexing syntax. For example, one may write the following: You can initialize a tensor by calling its insert method to add a nonzero element to the tensor. The insert method takes two arguments: a list specifying the coordinates of the nonzero element to be added and the value to be inserted at that coordinate:

# Declare a sparse tensor
A = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], compressed)

# Set A(0, 1, 0) = 42.0
A.insert([0, 1, 0], 42.0)

If multiple elements are inserted at the same coordinates, they are summed together:

# Declare a sparse tensor
A = pt.tensor([512, 64, 2048], compressed)

# Set A(0, 1, 0) = 42.0 + 24.0 = 66.0
A.insert([0, 1, 0], 42.0)
A.insert([0, 1, 0], 24.0)

The insert method adds the inserted nonzero element to a temporary buffer. Before a tensor can actually be used in a computation though, the pack method must be invoked to pack the tensor into the storage format that was specified when the tensor was first declared. TACO will automatically do this immediately before the tensor is used in a computation. You can also manually invoke pack though if you need full control over when exactly that is done:

A.pack()

You can then iterate over the nonzero elements of the tensor as follows:

for coordinates, val in A:
print(val)

# File I/O

Rather than manually constructing a tensor, you can load tensors directly from file by invoking the pytaco.read function:

# Load a dense-sparse-sparse tensor from file "A.tns"
A = pt.read("A.tns", pt.format([dense, compressed, compressed]))

By default, pytaco.read returns a tensor that has already been packed into the specified storage format. You can optionally pass a Boolean flag as an argument to indicate whether the returned tensor should be packed or not:

# Load an unpacked tensor from file "A.tns"
A = pt.read("A.tns", format([dense, compressed, compressed]), false)

The loaded tensor will then remain unpacked until the pack method is manually invoked or a computation that uses the tensor is performed.

You can also write a tensor directly to file by invoking the pytaco.write function:

# Write tensor A to file "A.tns"
pt.write("A.tns", A)

TACO supports loading tensors from and storing tensors to the following file formats:

# NumPy and SciPy I/O

Tensors can also be initialized with either NumPy arrays or SciPy sparse (CSR or CSC) matrices:

import pytaco as pt
import numpy as np
import scipy.sparse

# Assuming SciPy matrix is stored in CSR

# Cast the matrix as a TACO tensor (also stored in CSR)
taco_tensor = pt.from_sp_csr(sparse_matrix)

# We can also load a NumPy array

# And initialize a TACO tensor from this array
dense_tensor = pt.from_array(np_array)

We can also export TACO tensors to either NumPy arrays or SciPy sparse matrices:

# Convert the tensor to a SciPy CSR matrix
sparse_matrix = taco_tensor.to_sp_csr()

# Convert the tensor to a NumPy array
np_array = dense_tensor.to_array()